S.No. Total View Count Title of Manuscript Page No Download/ PDF

Author: SiamakGhadimi1, Mohammadreza Bayat1, & Abbas Sadeghi2

12-19  0

Article info

doi no.: 05-2016-44975451DOI Link ::


  1. Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, AllamehGhazvini Higher Education Institute, Iran
  2. Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

Corresponding Author: Siamak Ghadimi, Department of Physical  Education  and  Sports  Sciences, Allameh Ghazvini Higher Education Institute, Qazvin, Iran. +989120046884


Background and objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of glutamine consumption on muscle strength and circumference of upper-arm and thigh muscles in young adult male boxers. It has been hypothesized that glutamine is utilized for muscle growth and protection against muscle breakdown and muscle tissue loss, and can thus improve muscle growth and performance of athletes. Method: This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial in which 30 physically active non-smoker male boxers were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups of 15 participants; control and glutamine groups. The participants underwent boxing workout protocol 3 times a week for a period of 8 weeks, and pretest and posttest forearm and thigh muscle strength and circumference were recorded. Participants in the glutamine group received glutamine supplement at 0.15 g / kg body mass plus 0.15 g of maltodextrin/kg of body mass and participants in the control group received 0.30 g maltodextrin/ kg body mass 30 minutes before each training session. Posttest measurements were compared between glutamine and control groups. Results: There were significant differences in the average forearm and thigh muscle strengths between the glutamine group and control group after 8 weeks of training (P<0.005), but no significant differences were observed when forearm and thigh circumferences were compared between the two groups (p>0.005).   Conclusion: Our results show that taking glutamine supplements for boxing training can increase thigh and upper-arm muscle strength. Also, glutamine supplements alone may not be sufficient for increasing upper-arm and thigh circumference in male boxers in a short period of time.

Keywords: Boxing, Glutamine, Lower extremity, Upper extremity,  muscles, strength, circumference.


Amores-Sánchez, M. I., & Medina, M. A. (1999). Glutamine, as a precursor of glutathione, and oxidative stress. Mol Genet Metab, 67(2), 100-105. doi: 10.1006/mgme.1999.2857

Candow, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Burke, D. G., Davison, K. S., & Smith-Palmer, T. (2001). Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. Eur J Appl Physiol, 86(2), 142-149. doi: 10.1007/s00421-001-0523-y

Castell, L. M., & Newsholme, E. A. (1997). The effects of oral glutamine supplementation on athletes after prolonged, exhaustive exercise. Nutrition, 13(7-8), 738-742. doi: 10.1016/s0899-9007(97)83036-5

Castell, L. M., Poortmans, J. R., & Newsholme, E. A. (1996). Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 73(5), 488-490. doi: 10.1007/bf00334429

Cheraghi, M., Agha-Alinejad, H., Arshi, A., & Shirzad, E. (2014). Kinematics of Straight Right Punch in Boxing. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 2, 39-50. doi: 10.18869/acadpub.aassjournal.2.2.39

Córdova-Martínez, A., Caballero-García, A., Bello, H. J., Pérez-Valdecantos, D., & Roche, E. (2021). Effect of Glutamine Supplementation on Muscular Damage Biomarkers in Professional Basketball Players. Nutrients, 13(6). doi: 10.3390/nu13062073

Cruzat, V. F., Rogero, M. M., Borges, M. C., & Tirapegui, J. (2007). Aspectos atuais sobre estresse oxidativo, exercícios físicos e suplementação. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 13(5), 336-342. doi:

Cruzat, V. F., Rogero, M. M., & Tirapegui, J. (2010). Effects of supplementation with free glutamine and the dipeptide alanyl-glutamine on parameters of muscle damage and inflammation in rats submitted to prolonged exercise. Cell Biochem Funct, 28(1), 24-30. doi: 10.1002/cbf.1611

Cruzat, V. F., & Tirapegui, J. (2009). Effects of oral supplementation with glutamine and alanyl-glutamine on glutamine, glutamate, and glutathione status in trained rats and subjected to long-duration exercise. Nutrition, 25(4), 428-435. doi: 10.1016/j .nut. 2008.09.014

Falk, D. J., Heelan, K. A., Thyfault, J. P., & Koch, A. J. (2003). Effects of effervescent creatine, ribose, and glutamine supplementation on muscular strength, muscular endurance, and body composition. J Strength Cond Res, 17(4), 810-816. doi: 10.1519/1533-4287(2003)017<0810:eoecra>;2

Ghanbarzadeh, M., & Sedaghatpour, M. (2011). Effect consumption of glutamine supplement on aerobic power, anaerobic power and body composition of soccer players. Journal of physical education and sport, 11, 313-316.

Hembrough, D., Ruddock, A., Wilson, D., Thompson, S., Hembrough, D., & Winter, E. (2016). Strength and Conditioning for Professional Boxing: Recommendations for Physical Preparation. Strength and conditioning journal, 38. doi: 10.1519/SSC.0000000000000217

Khosravi, F., Amiri, Z., Masouleh, N. A., Kashfi, P., Panjizadeh, F., Hajilo, Z., . . . Rahnama, L. (2019). Shoulder pain prevalence and risk factors in middle-aged women: A cross-sectional study. J Bodyw Mov Ther, 23(4), 752-757. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2019.05.007

Matés, J. M., Pérez-Gómez, C., Núñez de Castro, I., Asenjo, M., & Márquez, J. (2002). Glutamine and its relationship with intracellular redox status, oxidative stress and cell proliferation/death. Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 34(5), 439-458. doi: 10.1016/s1357-2725(01)00143-1

Parry-Billings, M., Blomstrand, E., McAndrew, N., & Newsholme, E. A. (1990). A communicational link between skeletal muscle, brain, and cells of the immune system. Int J Sports Med, 11 Suppl 2, S122-128. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1024863

Pasiakos, S. M., McLellan, T. M., & Lieberman, H. R. (2015). The effects of protein supplements on muscle mass, strength, and aerobic and anaerobic power in healthy adults: a systematic review. Sports Med, 45(1), 111-131. doi: 10.1007/s40279-014-0242-2

Poindexter, B. B., Ehrenkranz, R. A., Stoll, B. J., Koch, M. A., Wright, L. L., Oh, W., . . . Lemons, J. A. (2003). Effect of parenteral glutamine supplementation on plasma amino acid concentrations in extremely low-birth-weight infants. Am J Clin Nutr, 77(3), 737-743. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/77.3.737

Powers, S. K., DeRuisseau, K. C., Quindry, J., & Hamilton, K. L. (2004). Dietary antioxidants and exercise. J Sports Sci, 22(1), 81-94. doi: 10.1080/0264041031000140563

Raizel, R., & Tirapegui, J. (2018). Role of glutamine, as free or dipeptide form, on muscle recovery from resistance training: a review study. Nutrire, 43(1), 28. doi: 10.1186/s41110-018-0087-9

Sajedi, H., Salari, N., Bas, M., & Bayram, M. (2016). Aerobic energy system, strength and glutamine supplementation consequences in handball players. port Science – International Scientific Journal of Kinesiology, 9(2), 114-119.

Sasaki, E., Umeda, T., Takahashi, I., Arata, K., Yamamoto, Y., Tanabe, M., . . . Nakaji, S. (2013). Effect of glutamine supplementation on neutrophil function in male judoists. Luminescence, 28(4), 442-449. doi: 10.1002/bio.2474

Street, B., Byrne, C., & Eston, R. (2011). Glutamine Supplementation in Recovery From Eccentric Exercise Attenuates Strength Loss and Muscle Soreness. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, 9(2), 116-122. doi:

Vasilescu, M. (2014). Long-Term Glutamine Supplementation in Elite Gymnasts. Farmacia, 62, 761-766.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *